The basic principle of friction welding is intermetallic bonding at the stage of super plasticity attained with self-generating heat due tofriction and finishing at upset pressure. Now the dissimilar metal joints are especially popular in defense, aerospace, automobile, bio-medical,refinery and nuclear engineerings. In friction welding, some special alloys with dual phase are not joined successfully due to poor bondingstrength. The alloy surfaces after bonding also have metallurgical changes in the line of interfacing. The reported research work in this area isscanty. Although the sound weld zone of direct bonding between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L was obtained though many trials, the joint was notsuccessful. In this paper, the friction welding characteristics between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L into which pure oxygen free copper （OFC） wasintroduced as interlayer were investigated. BoxeBehnken design was used to minimize the number of experiments to be performed. The weldjoint was analyzed for its mechanical strength. The highest tensile strength between Tie6Ale4V and SS304L between which pure copper wasused as insert metal was acquired. Micro-structural analysis and elemental analysis were carried out by EDS, and the formation of intermetalliccompound at the interface was identified by XRD analysis.Copyright 2015, China Ordnance Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The advanced tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling is used to provide pre-injection analytical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure change, APo for fluid injection sce- narios into generic anticline geometries. The heterogeneous stress distribution for different prevailing stress regimes in combination with the Young＇s modulus （E） contrast between the injection layer and the cap rock and the interbedding friction coefficient, μ, may result in large spatial and directional differences of △Pc. A single value characterizing the cap rock as for horizontal layered injection scenarios is not obtained. It is observed that a higher Young＇s modulus in the cap rock and/or a weak mechanical coupling between layers amplifies the maximum and minimum △Pc values in the valley and limb, respectively. These differences in △Pc imposed by E and μ are further amplified by different stress re- gimes. The more compressional the stress regime is, the larger the differences between the maximum and minimum △Pc values become. The results of this study show that, in general compressional stress regimes yield the largest magnitudes of △Pc and extensional stress regimes provide the lowest values of △Pc for anticline formations. Yet this conclusion has to be considered with care when folded anticline layers are characterized by flexural slip and the friction coefficient between layers is low, i.e. μ = 0.1. For such cases of weak mechanical coupling, △Pc magnitudes may range from 0 MPa to 27 MPa, indicating imminent risk of fault reactivation in the cap rock. 2015 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Several mechanical and physical properties of five apple cultivars (Black, Apricot, Jester, Big Ariane and Medium Ariane) had been estimated. The results showed that there were important significant differences among the cultivars in most of the parameters that were measured. Among the cultivars, Black cultivar had the highest fruit mass (207.65 g), followed by Big Ariane (188.34 g) and Medium Ariane (137.49 g). The actual fruit volume (cm3) ranged from 61.77 (Apricot) to 269.67 (Black). The highest geometric, arithmetic, square and equivalent mean diameter values were observed for Big Ariane. The surface area and projected area of cultivars were between 14.53-69 cm2 and 45.56-165.33 cm2, respectively. The maximum coefficient of static friction was obtained on plastic followed by steel, iron and glass; the maximum coefficient of dynamic friction was obtained on glass followed by steel, plastic and iron.